Health Matters: Sleep Disorders

Sleep Disorders – Health Matters

A sleep disorder (somnipathy) is a medical disorder of the sleep patterns of a person or animal. Some sleep disorders are serious enough to interfere with normal physical, mental and emotional functioning. A test commonly ordered for some sleep disorders is the polysomnography.

The most common sleep disorders include:
Primary insomnia: Chronic difficulty in falling asleep and/or maintaining sleep when no other cause is found for these symptoms.
Bruxism: Involuntarily grinding or clenching of the teeth while sleeping.
Delayed sleep phase syndrome (DSPS): inability to awaken and fall asleep at socially acceptable times but no problem with sleep maintenance, a disorder of circadian rhythms. Other such disorders are advanced sleep phase syndrome (ASPS) and Non-24-hour sleep-wake syndrome (Non-24), both much less common than DSPS.
Hypopnea syndrome: Abnormally shallow breathing or slow respiratory rate while sleeping.
Narcolepsy: Excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) often culminating in falling asleep spontaneously but unwillingly at inappropriate times.
Cataplexy: a sudden weakness in the motor muscles that can result in collapse to the floor.
Night terror: Pavor nocturnus, sleep terror disorder: abrupt awakening from sleep with behavior consistent with terror.
Parasomnias: Disruptive sleep-related events involving inappropriate actions during sleep stages – sleep walking and night-terrors are examples.
Periodic limb movement disorder (PLMD): Sudden involuntary movement of arms and/or legs during sleep, for example kicking the legs. Also known as nocturnal myoclonus. See also Hypnic jerk, which is not a disorder.
Rapid eye movement behavior disorder (RBD): Acting out violent or dramatic dreams while in REM sleep.
Restless legs syndrome (RLS): An irresistible urge to move legs. RLS sufferers often also have PLMD.
Situational circadian rhythm sleep disorders: shift work sleep disorder (SWSD) and jet lag.
Obstructive sleep apnea: Obstruction of the airway during sleep, causing lack of sufficient deep sleep; often accompanied by snoring. Other forms of sleep apnea are less common.
Sleep paralysis: is characterized by temporary paralysis of the body shortly before or after sleep. Sleep paralysis may be accompanied by visual, auditory or tactile hallucinations. Not a disorder unless severe. Often seen as part of Narcolepsy.
Sleepwalking or somnambulism: Engaging in activities that are normally associated with wakefulness (such as eating or dressing), which may include walking, without the conscious knowledge of the subject.
Nocturia: A frequent need to get up and go to the bathroom to urinate at night. It differs from Enuresis, or bed-wetting, in which the person does not arouse from sleep, but the bladder nevertheless empties.
Somniphobia: a dread of sleep.
Sorce: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sleep_disorder

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